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Rabbi and Rabbinism - Article covering a 1913 Catholic view of Rabbinism Rabelais, François - Sixteenth-century French writer Raccolta - A book containing prayers and pious exercises to which the popes have attached indulgences Race, Human - Article describing the view of the human race from a 1911 Catholic perspective Race, Negro - Article describing the view of the negro race from a 1911 Catholic perspective Racine, Jean - Brief biography of the seventeenth-century dramatist Rail, Altar - The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. Also called the communion-rail Ransom, Feast of Our Lady of - Feast on 24 September commemorating the foundation of the Mercedarians Raphael, Saint - Archangel appearing in the Book of Tobias Raphael - Italian painter (1483-1520) Ratio Studiorum - The educational system of the Jesuits Rationalism - Term used in an exact sense, to designate a particular moment in the development of Protestant thought in Germany, or in a broader, and more usual, sense to cover the view that the human reason, or understanding, is the sole source and final test of all truth Ratisbonne, Maria Alphonse - Converted Jew who built two convents in Jerusalem (1814-1884) Ratzinger, Georg - Political economist and social reformer (1844-1899) Ravenna - Archdiocese based in the capital of a province in Romagna, central Italy Raymond Lully - Biobibliographical article on Ramon Lull, who is called 'Doctor Illuminatus.' Raymond Nonnatus, Saint - Spanish Mercedarian (1200-1240) Raymond of Peñafort, Saint - Born near Barcelona, Raymond was an able canon lawyer who joined the Dominicans. He died in 1275 Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist - Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy Realism, Nominalism, Conceptualism - The theories that have been proposed as solutions of the problem of universals Reason - Article discussing various definitions of the term Reason, Age of - The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally responsible Recollection - Recollection, as understood in respect to the spiritual life, means attention to the presence of God in the soul Reconciliation, Sacrament of - A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same. Rector - Priests who preside over missions or quasi-parishes Recusants, English - People who refrained from attending Church of England services Red Sea - The northwest arm of the Indian Ocean, some 1400 miles long and lying between Arabia on the east and Africa on the west Redemption - The restoration of man from the bondage of sin to the liberty of the children of God through the satisfactions and merits of Christ Redemptorists - Society of missionary priests founded by St. Alphonsus Maria Liguori in 1732 at Scala, Italy Redi, Francesco - Italian poet (1626-1698) Reductions of Paraguay - Jesuit campaign to convert the natives of Paraguay Reformation, The - Sixteenth century religious movement led by Martin Luther Reformed Churches - Protestant bodies which adopted the tenets of Zwingli and, later, the doctrinal principles of Calvin Refuge, Cities of - Towns which according to the Jewish law enjoyed the right of asylum and to which anyone who had unintentionally slain another might flee and be protected from the 'avenger of blood' Refuge, Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the - Religious order founded in 1641 that works towards reforming women living a life of sin Regale, Droit de - Document denoting those rights that belonged exclusively to the king Regalia - The insignia of royalty or 'crown jewels' Regeneration - Biblico-dogmatic term closely connected with the ideas of justification, Divine sonship, and the deification of the soul through grace Regina Coeli - The opening words of the Eastertide anthem of the Blessed Virgin Regis, John Francis, Saint - Jesuit priest and missionary, d. 1640 Reims - Archdiocese of Reims comprising the district of Reims in the Department of Marne and the whole Department of Ardennes Relativism - A doctrine which denies, universally or in regard to some restricted sphere of being, the existence of absolute values Relics - An object, notably part of the body or clothes, remaining as a memorial of a departed saint Religion - The voluntary subjection of oneself to God Religion, Virtue of - Article discussing the moral value of religion Religions, Statistics of - Includes the definition and historical development, along with the status of religious bodies Religious Life - Overview and evangelical ideas on what makes up religious life Religious Profession - Describes both a declaration openly made, and a state of life publicly embraced Reliquaries - Any box, casket, or shrine destined for the reception of relics Renaissance, The - Period of revival of classic, especially of Greek, learning and the recovery of ancient art in the departments of sculpture, painting, and architecture Reni, Guido - Italian painter (1575-1642) Reordinations - The history of all ordinations which were considered null for any other reason than defect of the prescribed form or intention and which were repeated Reparation - Theological concept of God demanding satisfaction for the injuries which man had done Him Repose, Altar of - Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository Reputation (as Property) - The outcome of a person's meritorious activity Requiem, Masses of - Masses that are offered for the dead Rerum Novarum - The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the 'Condition of Labour' Reserved Cases - A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor Restitution - An act of commutative justice by which exact reparation as far as possible is made for an injury that has been done to another Resurrection of Jesus Christ - Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life Resurrection, General - The rising again from the dead, the resumption of life Retreats - A series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of asceticism, in particular to prayer and penance Reuben - Proper name meaning both a patriarch and a tribe of Israel Revelation - The communication of some truth by God to a rational creature through means which are beyond the ordinary course of nature Revelation, Book of - The name given to the last book in the Bible, also called the Book of Revelation Revelations, Private - Article discussing the judging of private revelations Revolution, English - The history of the Revolution resolves itself into a catalogue of various ill-judged measures which alienated the support of the Established Church, the Tory party, and the nation as a whole Revolution, French - A view of its effect on the Church Rhode Island - American state and one of the thirteen original colonies Ricci, Matteo - Founder of the Catholic missions of China (1552-1610) Rice, Edmund Ignatius - Biographical article on the founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as the Irish Christian Brothers) Richard I - King of England who embarked on the Crusades (1157-1199) Richard de Wyche, Saint - The devoted companion of St. Edmund Rich, was bishop of Chichester. Richard died in 1253, and was canonized less than 10 years later Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de - Cardinal and French statesman (1585-1642) Right - Substantive designating the object of justice Right of Exclusion - The alleged competence of the more important Catholic countries, Austria, France, and Spain, to indicate to their respective cardinal protector, or cardinal procurator, those members of the Sacred College who were personae minus gratae, so that, if there was a possibility of one of these becoming pope, the authorized cardinal might, before the decisive ballot, give his veto, in the name of his government, against such election Ring of the Fisherman, The - Ring worn by the popes, with a representation of St. Peter in a boat on it Rings - Article discussing religious uses and values concerning the wearing of rings Rita of Cascia, Saint - Rita married an abusive man, became a mother, was widowed, joined the Augustinians. She died in 1456 Rites - The ceremonies, prayers, and functions of any religious body Rites in the United States - Article discussing various rites used within the United States Ritual - One of the official books of the Roman Rite. It contains all the services performed by a priest that are not in the Missal and Breviary and has also, for convenience, some that are in those books Rizal, José Mercado - Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor (1861-1896) Robert, Saint - French Benedictine, founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu, d. 1067 Robert Bellarmine, Saint - Biographical article on the Jesuit theologian and cardinal Robert of Geneva - Antipope under the name of Clement VII (1342-1394) Robert of Molesme, Saint - Founder of the Abbey of Citeaux and the monastery at Molesme (d. 1111) Roch, Saint - Early 14th century. While on pilgrimage, Roch acquired renown for healing plague victims. He himself was stricken with the plague. Upon returning to his hometown, he was cast into prison as an accused spy, where he died Roche, Alanus de la - Dominican promoter of the Rosary (1428-1475) Rochet - An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), and reaching to the knees Rococo Style - A discussion of this whimsical style, its origins and uses Rodriguez, Saint Alphonsus - Spanish-born widower, Jesuit lay brother, served as porter at Majorca for 46 years, d. 1617. Also known as Alonso Roger Bacon - Philosopher, born at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; died at Oxford, perhaps 11 June, 1294 Rolle de Hampole, Richard - English solitary and writer. Article on his life and writings Roman Catacombs - The subject is covered under the headings: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. Paintings; V. Sarcophagi; VI. Small Objects Found in the Catacombs; and VII. Catacombs outside Rome Roman Catechism - This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoys an authority equalled by no other catechism Roman Catholic - A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those unwilling to recognize the claim of being the One True Church Roman Christian Cemeteries, Early - This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome Roman Congregations - The most important of certain departments organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the transaction of those affairs which canonical discipline and the individual interests of the faithful bring to Rome Roman Curia - Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff in the government of the Universal Church Roman Rite, The - The manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, administering Sacraments, reciting the Divine Office, and performing other ecclesiastical functions as used in the city and Diocese of Rome Romans, Epistle to the - The subject is treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. Character, Contents, and Arrangement of the Epistle; III. Authenticity; IV. Integrity; V. Date and Circumstances of Composition; VI. Historical Importance; VII, Theological Contents: Faith and Works (Paul and James) Romanus, Saints - Mentions and gives brief profiles of several saints of this name Romanus, Pope - Ninth-century Pope who reigned for four months in 897 Rome - The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope Romuald, Saint - Italian-born founder of the Camaldolese, d. 1027 Romulus Augustulus - Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire Rood - A term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, which, with the prefix Holy, occurs as the dedication of some churches Roper, William - English politician and biographer of St. Thomas More (1496-1578) Rorate Coeli - Vulgate, text, the opening words of Isaiah 45:8 Rosalia, Saint - Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she is patroness Rosary, The - History of this devotion. Also considers the Orthodox and Eastern-Rite Catholic practice Rosary, Confraternity of the - The Perpetual Rosary is an organization for securing the continuous recitation of the Rosary by day and night among a number of associates who perform their allotted share at stated times Rosary, Feast of the Holy - At the request of the Dominican Order Gregory XIII in 1573 allowed this feast to be kept in all churches which possessed an altar dedicated to the Holy Rosary Rosary, Seraphic - Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet Rose of Lima, Saint - Biographical article on the first American to be named a saint Rose of Viterbo, Saint - Third order Franciscan, preached repentance. She died at the age of 17, in 1252 Rose Window - A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled with stained glasses Rosh Hashanah - The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year Rosicrucians - The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic-theosophic 'Rosicrucian Brotherhood', described in the pamphlet 'Fama Fraternitatis R.C.' Rosmini and Rosminianism - Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, 1797, at Rovereto, Austrian Tyrol; died 1 July, 1855, at Stresa, Italy Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio - Article focusing on his musical innovations and his church music Roswitha - A celebrated nun-poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, Roswitha, Hrotswitha, Hrosvitha, and Hrotsuit; born probably between 930 and 940, died about 1002 Rota, Sacra Romana - One of three tribunals instituted by the 'Sapienti Consilio' constitution of 1908 Rouen, Archdiocese of - Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and Seez as suffragans: it also includes the Department of the Seine Inferieure Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste - French poet (1670-1741) Royal Declaration, The - The name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in accordance with provisions of the 'Bill of Rights' (1689) and of 'the Act of Succession' (1700), every sovereign succeeding to the throne of Great Britain was required to make in the presence of the assembled Lords and Commons Ruben - Proper name meaning both a patriarch and a tribe of Israel Rubens, Peter Paul - Flemish painter (1577-1640) Rubrics - Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica, rubric, signified the red earth used by carpenters to mark on wood the line to follow in cutting it; according to Juvenal the same name was applied to the red titles under which the jurisconsults arranged the announcements of laws Rule of Faith, The - The word rule (Lat. regula, Gr. kanon) means a standard by which something can be tested, and the rule of faith means something extrinsic to our faith, and serving as its norm or measure Rule of St. Augustine - Names the five documents sometimes identified as the Rule of Augustine, quickly narrows the field to two contenders, settles on Letter 211. Also deals with Augustine's relation to monasticism Rule of St. Benedict - Lengthy article on the text of the Rule and its composition, some analysis, and practical application Rumania - A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian Mountains, and the Pruth Rupe, Alanus de - Dominican promoter of the Rosary (1428-1475) Russia - Geography and history Russia, The Religion of - There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity of Russia; according to one of them, Russia was Catholic from the times when she embraced Christianity until the twelfth century; the other holds that Russia was always Orthodox Russian Language and Literature - Russian is a Slav language belonging to the Indo-European family Ruth, Book of - One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament Ruthenian Rite - There is no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but the name is often used for the modifications which the Ruthenians have introduced in the Byzantine or Greek Rite Ruthenians - A Slavic people from Southern Russia, Galicia and Bukowina in Austria, and North-eastern Hungary Ruysbroeck, Blessed John - Article on the Admirable Doctor, 'undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish mystics,' author, who died in 1381